greater freedom of his mature period, when he indicates an understanding of the oil painting introduced by Antonello da Messina.1 Crowe and Cavalcaselle suppose a period of travel and contact with other schools between his early tutelage in Murano and his partnership with his older brother Antonio. It is generally agreed that he either studied in Padua or adopted Paduan draughtsmanship--first perhaps from Squarcione, and afterwards from Mantegna or Pizzolo--as may be seen in his severe figures, long proportions, often exaggerated articulations, and classical draperies. The studied and awkward drawing of his Christ-Child type, especially in early works, is Squarcionesque. On the other hand, the Paduan decorative features--Roman wreaths, etc.--seldom appear, and the backgrounds are usually simple, without landscape. His sobriety contrasts with Crivelli's exuberance, and with the picturesque motives of descriptive artists as Gentile Bellini. After 1457 we find him working independently of Antonio under the name of Vivarini; and although in his later years there is some inflexibility and hardening of style and feeling, his general richness of expression and robust characterisation, typical yet individual, make him the central painter of the school, and by virtue of his qualities as both a great painter and great teacher he finally succeeded to its leadership.
Contemporary with Bartolommeo there came into the field of Venetian art two other strong personalities--Antonello da Messina and Carlo Crivelli.____________________
See also Gioacchino di Marzo, Di Antonello da Messina, etc., and authoritative Review by W. H. J. Weale, Burl. Mag., V, 321, from which the following notes are taken. Ant. da Messina, b. at Messina about 1430; may have visited Rome about 1450, and may have met Roger d. l. Pasteur there; must have sojourned in Flanders in order to have learnt the Netherlandish methods so thoroughly ( Fry, Review of Mr. Frick's Antonello, Bull. Metrop. Mus., II, 199, agrees); 1455, back in Messina; c. 1457, married; 1461, 1462, and 1464, in Messina; 1472 and 1473, in Sicily; 1474, at Venice; 1476 (March), went to Milan by invitation of the Duchess Bianca Maria, and returned to Venice; 1477, at Messina until death in 147 9. His son a master painter, 1479. See also L. Vent. for his mention in docs. from 1455-1479, and as being in Venice in 1474.