THE Late Renaissance is more important in Northern Europe than in Italy, and in the 17th century Italian styles interest less for themselves than for their effect in forming foreign artists-- Rubens, Vandyck, Velasquez, and in France, Claude and Poussin. The Late Renaissance is decadent in Italy, until with the 17th and 18th centuries all consistent traditions were lost. The High Renaissance glides before we know it into the Baroque. The germs of this dispersion are at work earlier. The beginnings of the Baroque are found, in fact, in the High Renaissance, in Raphael's later design, in the grandiloquence of Michelangelo's last frescoes, in the pompous grandeur of Titian's larger altarpieces.
In general local schools are merged in the three prolific movements of the Mannerists, prominent in Florence; the Naturalists, with no particular centre unless in Rome; and the Eclectics, starting in Bologna.
MANNERISTS. --In Florence, indeed, the movement was at least based upon native ideals. The men who inherit style show a certain cold dignity, as in the portraits of PONTORMO and his pupil BRONZINO, while those who revert to mere impulse and nature--as typically GIOVANNI DI S. GIOVANNI and IL VOLTERRANO--display a distressing triviality based upon del Sarto's naturalism.
LATE SIENA. --At Siena the decline is more gracious. It begins in the High Renaissance with an eclectic movement imitating Pintorricchio, Perugino, and Raphael, of which the great architect, BALDASSARE PERUZZI,1is the only important master in painting. For the Baroque, DOMENICO BECCAFUMI leads the way in an artificial but inventive and often charming style, based upon Sodoma and the late Florentines. With him____________________