HYNDMAN had almost invariably hoped for 'a peaceful revolution', and the Socialists with whom he associated had long settled down to constitutional methods. It is true that he was never satisfied with piecemeal social change; that he showed contempt for the series of social reforms effected under the Liberal Government; and that at times he hinted at militant action on the part of the organized workers as an alternative policy. Social-Democracy in his definition, however, stood for an orderly change of society, and when the advocates of 'direct action' made their appearance, whether in the trade unions, or in the women's suffrage movement, or in the campaigns for and against Irish Home Rule--Hyndman and his followers rather awkwardly held back and disassociated themselves from the politics of violence. In fact, Hyndman found himself in some embarrassment because of his objections both to gradual reform and to 'direct action'. He had no sympathy for reforms which in his view did not go far enough, but he did not dare to support any really militant activity.
The usual lag of wages behind rising prices played its part in the growth of the militant trade union movement in this period. Hyndman at first supported and even encouraged