IN the early eighties Hyndman seems to have paid most of the expenses for running the Federation, including the rent of its headquarters and the £2-a-week salary of its first Secretary. He was, however, not alone among the wealthy supporters of the Federation: there were Edward Carpenter, whose liberal donation had led to the foundation of Justice, William Morris, at the time Treasurer of the Federation, who sustained the weekly loss on the paper until he withdrew from the body, and many others, such as H. H. Champion, Belfort Bax, and Walter Crane. Donations from these middle-class members and sympathizers seem to have been the principal source of the Federation's income in the early years. In 1885 a sum of £100 was given by 'a friend' for the purpose of sending lecturers to the north.1 The successful organization campaign in Lancashire in 1892 was financed by a Miss Howell, a member of the S.D.F.2 Later important contributors were Lady Warwick and Joseph Fels, the American millionaire soap-manufacturer and apostle of Henry George.
In these circumstances it was natural that the S.D.F. should be most reluctant to publish full details of its finances. It was not until 1894 that it mentioned in its conference report so much as the bare totals of income and expenditure. According to these accounts the central office income stood at £579 in 1893-4 and increased to £1,554 by 1897-8; later during the set-backs of the South African War and the 'impossibilist revolt' there was silence even about the totals. When the S.D.F. finances recovered somewhat, exact figures were still withheld, and instead the total income of the whole S.D.F., i.e. branches and the head office, was given--£15,500 in 1906 and £19,000 in 1909. This may suggest that the increase in central office income lagged behind that in____________________