"THE BLACK ONE"
S. Vernon McCasland UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA
As is well known, the name Satan, which was used only a few times in the Old Testament ( II Chron. 21:1; Job 1:4--2:7; Zech. 3: 1), is a standard name in the New Testament.1 Originally it meant simply the adversary, but finally it became the most common name for the arch-spirit of evil. We are not concerned with Beliar ( II Cor. 6:15) or with Beelzebul, which appears in Mark 3:22 and its parallels ( Matt. 10:25; 12:24, 27; Luke 1:15, 18, 19), as alternate names of Satan. As they stand they are metonyms, but each of them at first probably was the name of some particular spirit or deity. Another picturesque and familiar metonym is Destroyer, which occurs in Rev. 9:11 as Abaddon, from Hebrew, or Apollyon, from Greek.
The Devil as a metonym or alternate name was first used in biblical literature in Wisdom of Solomon 2:24, but after that it frequently appeared in late apocryphal documents.2 In the New Testament the name Devil is used so often as to be in no need of documentation.
Certain metonyms indicate that Satan is prince over a realm. In Mark 3:22 and its parallels in Matthew and Luke he is the Prince of demons. John 12:31 refers to him as the Prince of this world, but in Eph. 2:2 he is Prince of the powers of the air. I Tim. 5:14 makes him simply the Adversary (τῳ + ̑ ἀντικειμένῳ), which shows that the author recalled the original meaning of the word Satan, and I Pet. 5:8 indicates the same thing.
It was also Wisdom of Solomon 2:24 which first identified the____________________