CHAPTER IX
MAN AND HIS GROUP

1. Nature of the Associated Group.

The plain fact of observation is that man is not a separate and isolated unit in the order of nature. Romantic fancy has sought to determine what sort of a person such a psychic phenomenon would be. Defoe created Robinson Crusoe and left him at first to his own devices on a desert island, forcing him to meet the exigencies of solitude as best he could. But social habitudes and the dramatic setting of the story show how all human instincts depend for their expression on the interrelation of intelligent subjects. Experiments have been set up in, scientific laboratories to discover, if possible, just what native elements in behavior respond to the stimulus of personal presence. An important body of pertinent facts is now on the table of the investigator. While we are unable to conclude that gregariousness is a necessary and original factor in human nature, we can at least hold that in moral conduct no personality is complete without the acceptance of rights and duties such as are involved in social exchange. Hence, the next step in our treatment of the materials of ethics must be an analysis of the relationships within which moral behavior is to be developed.

Experts are not agreed upon the term which most satisfactorily describes the contact between man and man. State, society, community, neighborhood, group, have successively commanded assent and support. Each of these has its specific implications, ranging from perfect organic unity to a voluntary association of independent wills. Those who believe in the organic unity assert that over and above individual minds gathered within a prescribed area there

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