tually recommended no new policy initiatives. He admitted that it was
a small step but argued that improving race relations would "be a
central part of the work I do for the rest of my life" (wp. com. specialracerelationsreport). At the same time, Clinton made no statements
regarding judicial actions in civil rights and favored expanding preferences to all economically disadvantaged groups. Despite diverse nominees to the judicial and executive branches, some would call Clinton's
executive and judicial actions more symbolic than substantive.
The key question, of course, is whether legislative, budget, executive, and judicial actions by a president make a difference. Most such
actions (perhaps apart from executive orders) do not create policy
themselves but must be acted on (modified, adopted, and implemented)
by other governmental institutions. Chapter 6 explores whether presidents get their way with Congress and the rest of the executive branch,
and chapter 7 covers responses to presidential statements and actions
from the courts and those outside government.
One can find executive orders in the Federal Register, in the Codification
of Presidential Proclamations and Executive Orders, and in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. The Codification ceased publication in 1989. Executive orders also appear on-line at www.nara.gov/fedreg/codhome.html.
Flaxbeard ( 1983) asserts that as a result of the Reorganization Act of 1978, President Carter issued some executive orders that were administrative, such as
calling for the reorganization of civil rights agencies. These executive orders were
issued for the purpose of streamlining the bureaucracy. Reagan, too, made several
purely administrative changes, and therefore it is debatable whether I should have
used all of their orders in calculating the number of executive orders.
The Washington Post National Weekly Edition ( May 5, 1986, 8-9) criticized Pendleton for fiery rhetoric and for "baiting" black leaders. Several excerpts
from statements by Pendleton appear in the article.
Those extensions were 1967 (PL 90-198), 1972 (PL 92-496), and 1978
(PL 95-444) ( Congress and the Nation, 2: 1969, 375, 3: 1973, 5:10; 5: 1981, 798).
The data in Table 5.3 for Reagan and Bush also include well qualified and
thus are not fully comparable.
Shull ( 1993, 127) found that the relationship between number of policy
statements and some presidential actions is moderately high (e.g., executive orders r = 0.470; legislative positions r = 0.723), whereas for others it is nonexistent
(e.g., legislative requests r = 0.075).
LBJ's focus on legislation seems natural because he was faced with a
situation where legislative authority was needed for further government action.