Beijing Spring, 1989: Confrontation and Conflict: the Basic Documents

By Qiao Li; Michel Oksenberg et al. | Go to book overview

IV
Intellectual Dissent

This section turns to the explicit expression of dissent by Chinese intellectuals and their direct petitions to the party leadership. The opening salvo (Doc. 14) is by Su Shaozhi, former director of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought in the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). Su delivered his address to a December 1988 symposium that evaluated the historic Third Plenum of the Eleventh Central Committee, held in December 1978. This plenum marked the reascendancy of Deng Xiaoping (following his second purge in 1976); more important, it initiated the reform era. Despite his proreform views, Su's attendance at the December 1988 session (at which conservative party leaders tried to avoid open criticism of recent political and economic retrenchment) was controversial: several prominent dissident intellectuals had not been invited, while others decided not to attend, apparently out of displeasure. Su's invitation was surprising since he had been criticized for his excessively prodemocratic views along with others excluded from the symposium. His appearance and talk were courageous acts--especially his defense of Yu Guangyuan and Wang Ruoshui, leading moderate theoreticians who had drawn the ire of such conservative ideologues in the party as Deng Liqun and Hu Qiaomu. Su was now once again pitted against old political enemies, particularly Deng Liqun, who had failed to dislodge him in the 1983-85 "anti-spiritual pollution" campaign. Su was even more daring in condemning the campaigns against "humanism and alienation" ( 1978-1983), "bourgeois liberalization" ( 1987), and "spiritual pollution," because each had had the explicit imprimatur of Deng Xiaoping.

Even more radical views were expressed by Fang Lizhi, an internationally recognized astrophysicist who had been unceremoniously tossed out of the CPC by Deng Xiaoping in early 1987. Placed under police surveillance (genzong), Fang nonetheless was able to meet with friends and write tracts that reached the outside world, where they were published and then returned to China for dissemination, especially among

-151-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Beijing Spring, 1989: Confrontation and Conflict: the Basic Documents
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 406

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.