Have we, in turning over and over the idea of progress in industry, in mentioning all the likely suggestions of causes, penetrated to the secret of efficiency? One of the clear results of any study of this kind seems to be that, when all the facts are turned up, there is no secret. Certainly no one knows anything which everyone cannot know who troubles to discover, even in the most casual fashion, what is going on. It is all there, in books, in trade journals, in government reports, in reports of the proceedings of scientific meetings. But this is not the question most people ask. They want to know what are the most important factors in causing efficiency. But here again it seems difficult to say that one is more important than another. If any one of our enumerated instruments or processes could be dropped out of industrial practice for a time and all the others could be maintained as constants, or if any of them could be introduced singly under controlled conditions, we should have the kind of a result which scientists would recognize as definitive and final. That we cannot have. And lacking it, it is hard to see how anyone can say certainly that one is more important than another.
It is difficult to see how one intrusted with a share in the managing of society, an industry, or a business, could feel justified in dispensing with any of the prac-