Economic Transition in Russia and the New States of Eurasia

By Bartlomiej Kaminski | Go to book overview

between concessional and nonconcessional loans will be maintained. The share of nonconcessional loans will increase gradually as Kazakhstan's banks begin to attract foreign credits.

Establishment of a competitive banking sector should allow investment resources to be utilized efficiently and directed into new sectors and products in which domestic firms can compete in world markets. Improving the investment climate for foreign investors should help Kazakhstan realize its great potential to attract foreign capital. Thus, the principal task of Kazakhstan's economic policy is to create a business-friendly environment.


Notes
1.
Kazakhstan signed an agreement on the "zero option" with Russia in 1993. According to this agreement, Kazakhstan transferred its share of the former USSR's external debt and foreign assets to Russia.
2.
FSU countries refers to former Soviet Union republics (that is, CIS and Baltic republics).
3.
Adjusted for inflation, prices for almost all natural resources, except magnesium and zinc, have decreased during the last two decades.
4.
In March 1994, during an official visit to Russia, President Nursultan Nazarbaev of the Republic of Kazakhstan signed twenty-three documents, among them an agreement on intensified economic cooperation and integration, a memorandum on the main principles for resolving issues connected to the civil and legal status of Kazakhs living in Russia and Russians living in Kazakhstan, an agreement on military cooperation, an agreement on strategic nuclear weapons located in Kazakhstan, and an agreement on control of the Baikonur cosmodrome. During the next meeting of the heads of state and governmental delegations in Moscow in January 1995, a large package of seventeen agreements between Russia and Kazakhstan was signed. Included in this package were a declaration on the expansion and intensification of Kazakh-Russian cooperation, an agreement on legal status, and an agreement on the simplification of the dual-citizenship procedure for Russian citizens moving to Kazakhstan and Kazakh citizens moving to Russia. Another fourteen documents were signed between the nations' prime ministers and their respective representatives. The agreement on a customs union, which launched the formation of a common customs space for Russia and Kazakhstan, was especially important.
5.
This agreement was signed by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan on 10 January 1994, and by Kyrgyzstan on 16 January 1994.
6.
In 1995, the Fund for the Reconstruction of the Economy was transferred to Eximbank Kazakhstan. It is now a fund of credit resources for Eximbank.
7.
These totals are United Nations estimates. They reflect the amounts that foreign companies contracted with Kazakhstan's government to invest during the period 1993 through 2010.
8.
Kazakhstan can borrow from international financial institutions only under the sovereign guarantees of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
9.
"Wages of Virtue," Institutional Investor, vol. 28, no. 3 ( 1 March 1994), p. 87.

-158-

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