"TRIED AND TRUE" MODELS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Part II, consisting of chapters 3 through 8, presents six popular classroom management models. These models are "tried and true" -- they have been on the American and world scenes for two decades or more. The classroom management models are presented in a sequence from those most interventionist in nature to those most noninterventionist in nature -- from those that purport to control to those that purport to influence. You should note clear differences between discipline models at opposite ends of the interventionist-noninterventionist or control-influence continuum -- for example, Dobson's A Place for Punishment model and the Canters' Assertive Discipline model versus Gordon's Teacher Effectiveness Training model. You will observe fewer clear differences between discipline models adjacent to each other.
The differences between the opposite ends of the control-influence continuum are reflected in the theme of a recent Robert Redford movie, The Horse Whisperer, where nontraditional ways are used to train wild horses. For years it was believed that you had to dominate, as well as break the will of, a wild horse in order to make it obey and cooperate. In The Horse Whisperer, the horse trainer talks to and uses mutual trust and respect to bond with the wild horse in order to gain its cooperation willingly.
Several of these classroom models (the Canters', Dreikurs', Glasser's, and Gordon's) have been widely used for in-service and, to some extent, pre-service training. Surprisingly, though, in a comprehensive survey by Emmer and Aussiker of 120 school districts in the United States and Canada, "only a few of the school districts reported evaluation research on the models, in spite of their widespread use" ( 1990, p. 133). One wonders upon what basis school district administrators and staff choose which discipline programs to adopt.