Zion in America: The Jewish Experience from Colonial Times to the Present

By Henry L. Feingold | Go to book overview

Notes and References
CHAPTER I
Quoted by George L. Berlin, "The Brandeis Weizmann Dispute," in the American Jewish Historical Society Publications (hereafter, PAJHS), LX ( September, 1970), 39.
Marranos or New Christians became the term applied to those Jews who accommodated themselves to the new situation especially after 1391, by conversion to Christianity. The term means "damned" or "swine."
M. Kayserling, Christopher Columbus and the Participation of the Jews in the Spanish and Portuguese Discoveries ( New York, 1894), 31.
Arnold Wiznitzer, "Crypto Jews in Mexico During the Sixteenth Century," PAJHS, I ( March, 1962; June, 1962), 168-214, 222-68. Sixteen percent of the crimes of heresy before the Mexican Inquisition concerned the crime of Judaizing. Of the 2,281 records of the Holy Office of the Mexican Inquisition examined by the author, 351 involved Marranos.
Solomon Grayzel, A History of the Jews: From the Babylonian Exile to the Establishment of Israel ( Philadelphia, 1965), 496. See also S. Broches, Jews in New England, Part I: Historical Study of the Jews in Massachusetts, 1650-1750 ( New York, 1942), 4. Anita L. Lebeson, Jewish Pioneers in America, 1742-1848 ( New York, 1931), 21. Puritans entertained a similar belief and a missionary issued an appeal to London to help Indians in 1650. Another named Thorowgood published Jews in America in which he explores the possible relationship between Jews and Indians. Cotton Mather and William Penn also were preoccupied with the subject. Actually the theme was not Jewish in origin, having been entertained by Catholic missionaries such as Bartolóme de las Casas a century before.
Details can be gleaned from Samuel E. Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus ( Boston, 1942), 148-49.
See for example Seymour M. Lipset and Aldo Solari (eds.) Elites in Latin America ( New York, 1967), 24-29, for the Jewish and Protestant origins of the most productive elites in Latin America today. Also David McClelland , The Achieving Society ( New York, 1961), 365-66. The opinion of the constructive role played by Jews in colonial Latin America is not universally shared. Salvador de Madariaga, a Spanish scholar, holds Jews partly responsible for the ultimate fall of the Spanish empire because of their ability to corrupt the Spanish character. They "became the most dangerous, pertinacious and intelligent enemies of the Spanish Empire," observed Madariaga. Salvador de Madariaga, The Fall of the Spanish Empire ( New York, 1947).
Hyman B. Grinstein, The Rise of the Jewish Community of New York, 1654-1860 ( Philadelphia, 1945), 72.

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