Charles the Second, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland

By Ronald Hutton | Go to book overview

6 The Pensioner of Spain, 1656-1660

IN 1656 the Spanish monarchy was arguably the greatest power in the world. Its possessions in the Netherlands, Italy, and the Americas gave its king the largest revenue of any ruler of the age, and a capacity to wage war in several theatres at once without allies. The liabilities associated with such advantages were the fear, envy, and greed which they provoked in other states and the ambitions which they aroused in Spanish governments. As a result, during the previous century the empire's resources had been repeatedly overstrained by warfare. In 1652 Spanish troops had driven their enemies simultaneously from Italy, Flanders, and Catalonia, only for their government to go bankrupt. By the time that Charles II took up residence in it, the monarchy had been continuously at war for thirty-six years, generally with at least two other powers at once. In 1656 its current enemies were France, England, and Portugal, and it was fighting in the Netherlands, Italy, Catalonia, Estremadura, and the West Indies. It had agreed to provide support for three separate notable exiles: the Duke of Lorraine, the Prince de Condé, and Charles himself. By October in this year King Felipe IV was in such penury that he feasted upon meat that was full of flies and stank. This was the ally upon whom the exiled Stuarts had fixed such hopes. 1 The story of their partnership has hitherto been told in detail only from Charles's point of view, whether by his biographers or by historians concerned with related subjects, such as Professor Underdown in his definitive study of royalist conspiracy. Accordingly, the Spaniards have been portrayed as having behaved towards their royal guest with dilatoriness, neglect, incompetence, and even deceit. The purpose of this chapter is to argue that such a viewpoint is fallacious, and to offer a more balanced picture.

The fundamental problem of the alliance was that, like Charles's treaty with the Covenanters, it was based upon conflicting interests and expectations. Charles wanted to be accorded public royal honours, a residence in the Spanish Netherlands, and a pension. He desired the seaports of Flanders to be opened to all ships which recognized his authority, to provide bases for royalist privateers and transportation for an invasion force. He wished

-100-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Charles the Second, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgements xi
  • Contents xiii
  • Illustrations xiv
  • I - Boyhood 1
  • 2 - The Exiled Prince of Wales 15
  • 3 - A King in Search of a Realm, 1649-1650 34
  • 5 - A King in Search of Quarters, 1651-1656 71
  • 6 - The Pensioner of Spain, 1656-1660 100
  • 7 - The Year of Restoration, 1660-1661 133
  • 8 - The Fight for the Settlements, 1661-1664 166
  • 10 - The Ministry of Arlington, 1688-1672 254
  • 11 - Charles's Second Dutch War, 1672-1674 287
  • 12 - The End of King Louis's War, 1674-1678 320
  • 13 - Collapse of a System, 1678-1679 357
  • 14 - The Quest for Men and Measures, 1679-1681 381
  • 15 - Towards a New Way of Ruling, 1681-1685 404
  • 16 - Conclusion: Monarch in a Masquerade 446
  • References 459
  • Notes 461
  • Index 543
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 558

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.