The following chapter- by-chapter essays indicate those books and articles that we have found to be most important and valuable to understanding the subjects concerned. They are not meant to be exhaustive bibliographies. In numerous cases, individual topics in twentieth-century western history have simply not yet been systematically studied by scholars in the field.
A standard reference guide to western studies is Howard R. Lamar, ed., The Reader's Encyclopedia of the American West ( New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977; reprint, New York: Harper and Row, 1987), which contains many essays dealing with the twentieth century. Michael P. Malone, ed., Historians and the American West ( Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983) features several historiographical essays dealing with twentieth-century themes: Clark C. Spence on mining, W. Turrentine Jackson on transportation, Robert C. Carriker on Indians, Gilbert C. Fire on agriculture, William L. Lang on the economy and the environment, F. Alan Coombs on twentieth-century politics, Bradford Luckingham on urbanization, Thomas G. Alexander on Mormons, Sandra L. Myres on women, Frederick C. Luebke on ethnic minority groups, and Richard W. Etulain on regional culture. Roger L. Nichols similar edited volume, American Frontier and Western Issues: A Historiographical Review (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986), has more of a frontier than modern-regional focus, but some essays in this volume too enter the twentieth century. An indispensable new work is Gerald D. Nash and Richard W. Etulain, eds., The Twentieth-Century West: Historical Interpretations ( Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1989); this volume includes Etulain "TheTwentieth-Century West: A Selective Bibliography,"