percent of smallholder farm households which are female-headed and which consume most of their production are not assisted by these policies. In addition the consumption-oriented policies--those affecting expenditures for education and health (including family planning) especially--have been cut in real terms by the SAPs. When total government expenditures must be reduced, it is difficult for governments to maintain funding in these crucial areas. Nutritional supplementation programs, debt forgiveness, reduced defense expenditures, improved financial management, and credit availability for women for various kinds of incomegenerating activities are therefore suggested as complementary policies to assist in mitigating the adverse effects of SAPs.
1989 "Giving Women Credit: The Strengths and Limitations of Credit as a Tool for Alleviating Poverty". World Development 17(1): 1017-32.
Bigelow Ross E.,
Esther M. Nbajah, and
Peter G. Ondeng
1987 Midterm Valuation of the Rural Enterprise Program of the Rural Private Enterprise Project, Kenya. USAID Kenya, June 30 (mimeo).
1989 "Investing in Poor Women: The Psychology of Donor Support". World Development 17(7): 1017-32.
Chipande G. H. R.,
M. M. Mowezatamba,
L. S. Mwaisanoc, and
M. W Mhango
1986 Income Generating Activities for Rural Women in Malawi: A Final Report. Centre for Social Research, Zomba: University of Malawi.
Commins Stephen K.
1988 Africa's Development Challenges and the World Bank. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Due Jean M.
1980a "The Allocation of Credit to Small Farmers in Tanzania and Zambia". African Studies Review. 23(3): 33-48.
1980b Costs, Returns, and Repayment Experience of Ujamaa Villages in Tanzania, 1973-1976 Washington, D.C.: University Press of America.
1983 "Update on Financing Smallholders in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania". Savings and Development 3: 261-277.
1987a "Agricultural Credit in Tanzania". Journal of Southern African Affairs 3(1): 99-113.
1987b "The Allocation of Credit to Ujamaa Villages and to Small Private Farmers in Tanzania". Savings and Development 2: 69-107.
1990 Experience with Income Generating Activities for Southern African Women (mimeo).