allocation. Second, women--whether they work outside their homes or
not--have increasingly become responsible for catering to the needs of
their families in addition to their productive roles. This trend has resulted
in increased hardship for them in the era of structural adjustment, in view
of government cutbacks in resource allocation to the social services (e.g.,
health, education, water supply, rural electrification, and transportation).
These services, which provide support for meeting women's everyday survival needs, have now fallen further short of doing so.
In view of the findings of this study and their implications of hardship
for Nigerian women, the need exists for a reassessment of the objectives of
SAP and a reevaluation of the implementation instruments in order to
add a human face to SAP programs. If women and their households are to
benefit from the expected "gain" of structural adjustment, the need exists
to invest substantially in human, physical, social, and institutional
resources that address the broader issues of women's subordination,
exploitation, and access to farm inputs and social services.
By "quality of life," I am referring to how everyday human survival needs
of food, health care, and recreation and/or leisure activities are met.
The Berg Report published in 1981 by the World Bank found the heart of
the economic woes of sub-Saharan African countries not to be caused by
external forces but by "domestic policy issues" which include overvalued
exchange rates, inappropriate pricing policy, excessive state intervention,
and costly import substitution policies.
In neoclassical analysis, privatization and economic liberalization refer to
the removal of various forms of government intervention in the product
and factor market which are seen as "distorting" the price signals and
"repressing" the market mechanism (
Kirkpatrick 1988: 9).
The choice of selected locations was due to my familiarity with the peoples' language, customs, and socioeconomic characteristics by virtue of my
schooling and working in the field of agricultural extension in those areas.
Small-scale farmers are those farming less than 5 hectares of land;
medium-scale farmers are those farming 5-10 hectares of land; large-scale
farmers are those farming above 10 hectares of land who receive fewer
ADP extension services (Nigerian Ministry of Agriculture).
It should be noted that these two projects were set up in response to the
Structural Adjustment Program and anticipated rural transformation.
Bendel and Ogun States' ADPs were established in 1985 and 1986 respectively to conduct the training of small-scale farmers (both males and
females), to provide extension services to the farmers, to provide access to
farming inputs (fertilizers, high-yielding varieties of seeds and seedlings
and pesticides), and to provide easy access to tractors and other technology