much to teach us about the factors which facilitate structural transformation. First of all, increasing prices to producers has made a difference, but it is not the whole story. Obviously this policy also needs to be weighed by planners against the hardship imposed at the other end, that is, to the consumers. Second, in the Orma case governmental institutional development appears to be crucial to the proliferation of trade and commerce, which finally took off in the mid-1980s to the point that it generated significant economic diversification. While many Orma are still terribly poor, their condition is somewhat improved by the new employment prospects afforded by this increasing diversification and division of labor. As the Orma experience with the tea kiosks indicates, such diversification need not exclude women, even in a Muslim society. The current decentralization initiative which the Kenyan government has embarked upon is but the most recent example of institutional change which appears to be paying off in the rural sector. Other African nations might do well to study this experiment.