Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers

By Christina H. Gladwin; Center for African Studies University of Florida | Go to book overview

16 Women Farmers, Structural Adjustment, and FAO's Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development

Anita Spring and Vicki Wilde

Many of the same problems, barriers, and needs of rural women that have been documented over the past twenty years are receiving new attention with the focus on structural adjustment and the larger macroeconomic influences. These include women's lack of land rights, inadequate access to credit, productive inputs and extension training, as well as the heavy burdens placed on them to meet the productive and reproductive needs of their households.

What is new is the recognition of a slowdown or even reversal in women's economic and social progress that was made during the 1950s to the 1970s, in which the economies of many developing countries grew at an annual rate of almost 2 percent per capita. Social progress was even greater than economic progress--life expectancy increased, infant mortality rates fell, and school enrollment rates increased at every level. Women participated in this progress, despite inequality in employment, income, education, and basic services. However, economic growth began to slow down in the late 1970s and early 1980s. A number of developing countries experienced a rapid accumulation of debts and slid into recession. With the economic crisis that followed, women's incremental steps for-

Anita Spring is chief of the Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), where she oversees programmatic efforts on women. She formerly directed the Women in Agricultural Development Program at the University of Florida and has a Ph.D. from Cornell University. She is the coeditor of Women Creating Wealth: Transforming Economic Development.

Vicki Wilde is a consultant for the Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service at FAO, where she coordinates the WID training program for FAO staff She is completing a Ph.D. at City University of New York.

Valuable comments on this chapter were provided by the heads of various technical units of FAO, including E. Morris-Hughes, H. Hjort, T. Aldington, and C. Morojele. The views expressed by the authors are theirs alone and do not reflect those of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

-387-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 418

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.