Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, 1845-1945

By Elizabeth J. Perry | Go to book overview

Appendix B Red Spear Code
(From Suemitsu Takayoshi, 1932, pp. 124-29)
1. The goal of this society is to use military force to effect popular self- rule and self-defense in order that everyone may attain a peaceful existence.
2. Members of this society must observe the following rules:
a. Respect parents and elders
b. Love their country and native village
c. Be trustworthy
d. Suffer hardship together
e. Obey laws and have a sense of civic responsibility
f. Refrain from acting recklessly.
3. To eliminate any obstacles to self-rule and self-defense, the society must carry out the following duties:
a. Suppress bandits
b. Eliminate reckless soldiers
c. Resist unfair taxes, surcharges, and corvée labor
d. Punish all bad officials and staff, bandits, and lawless persons.
4. All Chinese above eighteen years of age with a certain amount of property and a regular occupation, introduced by two or more members of the society, who swear to the initiation oath and pay an initiation fee of one yüan may be admitted.
5. Members of this society must observe the following military system:
a. Five members compose a wu, with its leader known as wu-chang
b. Five wu compose a tui, whose 25 members have a leader known as tui-chang
c. Five tui compose a she, whose 125 members have a leader known as she-chang
d. Five she compose a hsiang, whose 625 members have a leader known as hsiang-chang
e. Five hsiang compose a t'ing, whose 3,125 members have a leader known as t'ing-chang
f. Five t'ing compose a chün, whose 15,625 members have a leader known as chün-chang
g. Five chün compose a lu, whose 78,125 members have a leader known as lu-chang
h. Five lu compose a chen, whose 390,625 members have a leader known as chen-chang

-267-

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Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, 1845-1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xiii
  • 1. Introduction 1
  • 2. Prelude to Protest: the Huai-Pei Environment 10
  • 3. Strategies of Peasant Survival in Huai-Pei 48
  • Conclusion 94
  • 4. Predators Turn Rebels: the Case of the Nien 96
  • Conclusion 148
  • 5. Protectors Turn Rebels: the Case of the Red Spears 152
  • Conclusion 205
  • 6. Rebels Meet Revolutionaries: the Communist Movement in Huai-Pei 208
  • Conclusion 245
  • 7. Conclusion 248
  • Reference Matter 263
  • Appendix A Confession of Chang Lo-hsing 265
  • Appendix B Red Spear Code 267
  • Appendix C North China Protective Societies Contemporary with the Red Spears 269
  • Notes 274
  • Bibliography 294
  • Character List 312
  • Index 317
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