close empirical scrutiny. Finally, it is evident that processes underlying judgments that individuals make on traits that are consensually attributed to an ethnic group may be very different from those underlying relatively idiosyncratic beliefs. More research is clearly required to better understand the nature and causes of ethnic stereotypes and stereotyping; this research should consider carefully the distinction between consensual beliefs and relatively idiosyncratic ones.
Preparation of this chapter was facilitated by Grant no. 410-90-0195 from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada for research on attitudes, motivation, and anxiety in second-language learning. I would like to thank Vicki Galbraith for her assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.
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