Working Class USA: The Power and the Movement

By Gus Hall | Go to book overview

Reference notes
Chapter 1: The Rise of Industrial Trade Unionism
1. William Z. Foster( 1881-1961) was born in Taunton, Massachusetts. Leader of the Great Steel Strike of 1919; later founded the Trade Union Educational League (TUEL) and the Trade Union Unity League (TUUL). Elected national secretary of the Communist Party, USA in 1930 and later elected national chairman.
2. The Great Steel Strike and Its Lessons, William Z. Foster, B. W. Huebsch , NY, 1920.
3. Elbert H. Gary( 1846-1927) was an Illinois corporate lawyer; chairman of United States Steel Corporation beginning 1901. He fought every attempt to organize the steelworkers. Gary provided the inspiration for the famous statement: "He never saw a blast furnace until his death."
4. In 1935 President Franklin Roosevelt established the Works Progress Administration. By 1936 over 3 million people were at work in WPA programs, which included construction of public buildings, schools, roads, parks, as well employment programs in the arts, theatre and literature. The Civilian Works Administration was another New Deal job-creating program.
5. The Committee (later Congress) of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was formed in 1935 by a number of American Federation of Labor and independent unions opposed to the AFL policy of organizing workers only on a craft basis. Organizing on an industrial basis, the CIO soon grew to become a major rival to the AFL until the two federations merged in December, 1955 and became known as the AFL-CIO.
6. The founding convention of the National Negro Congress was held in Chicago in February of 1936. The convention was called to address the overwhelming economic and social problems faced by Black Americans. Eight hundred delegates attended, from 585 organizations including churches, trade unions, farm and educational societies, business organizations and political parties -- representing over one million people.
7. Refers to policies of Earl Browder ( 1891-1973) was General Secretary of the Communist Party, USA from 1930-1944; see glossary under "Browderism."

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