Soviet Power and Policy

By George B. De Huszar | Go to book overview

investment in the transportation industries, viewing these as means to the end of maximizing current output -- hence, the railroads must place major emphasis on their operating efficiency and on making increasingly effective use of their limited resources; (3) within the general limitations imposed by the industrial location policy and the available resources for investment the railroads must seek to minimize the amount of hauling required by avoiding, wherever possible, cross-hauls, long hauls, and so on. This task is difficult, for there are a number of long-run forces involved in the industrialization policy in general, and the industrial location plan in particular, which have tended to increase the volume of transportation activity per unit of output.

The economic development of the Soviet Union since the turn of the century has led to considerable changes in the pattern of freight movements. The first group of changes arose from the loss of territory after World War I and the increasingly autarkic nature of Soviet economic policy; the second group arose in the process of industrialization itself, and particularly the development of the eastern portions of the country. The pattern of freight movements which existed in the late 1930's, although it resembled closely in many respects that contemplated by the planners, has proved to be only transitional. The needs of the transportation system to eliminate congestion, to reduce the volume of longhaul transportation, and to provide particular sources of supply of mass freights to industrial areas are gradually leading to a readjustment of freight patterns, this time based upon the concept of regional self-sufficiency, and upon the replacement of longer interregional hauls by shorter ones. As yet this readjustment is not completed and, although some aspects are becoming clearer, the final pattern has not yet emerged.


NOTES TO THE TEXT
1
1940 and 1945 data are from Bolshaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, U.S.S.R. Volume, p. 951, and V. V. Povorozhenko, Organizatsiya gruzovoi raboty na zheleznodorozhnom transporte ( Moscow, 1947), p. 46. The 1950 data are from D. Zaglyadimov , "Osnovnye voprosy razvitiya transporta i svyazi v pyatol pyatiletke", Planovoe Khozyaistvo, No. 6, 1952.
2
T. S. Khachaturov, Razmeshchenie transporta ( Moscow, 1939), chs. 15, 22; S. P. Suslov, Fisicheskaya geografiya SSSR ( Moscow, 1947, passim; U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lake Series, Nos. 5 and 6 ( 1939), and Transportation in the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys, 1929.
3
Khachaturov, op. cit., ch. 15.
4
Yu. Koldomasov, "Povysit rol rechnogo transporta v gruzooborota strany", Planovoe Khozyaistvo, No. 2, 1948, reprinted in expanded form in Narodnoe Khozyaistvo SSSR, Sbornik No. 2 ( Moscow, 1948).
5
An adaptation of S. U. Bernshtein-Kogan, "Sdvigi v geografii zheleznodorozhnogo i vodnogo transporta za 30 let", Voprosy Geografii, Sbornik No. 6, 1947, pp. 88, 99.
6
T. S. Khachaturov, Osnovy ekonomiki zheleznodorozhnogo transporta ( Moscow, 1946), p. 236.

-144-

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Soviet Power and Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Authors ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • Part One - Background of Soviet Power 1
  • Chapter 1 - The Success of Kremlin Policy 3
  • Notes to the Text 23
  • Selected Bibliography 24
  • Part Two - Soviet Power 27
  • Chapter 2 - Lands and Resources Lands 29
  • Notes to the Text 53
  • Selected Bibliography 53
  • Chapter 3 - Characteristics of the Population 55
  • Notes to the Text 76
  • Selected Bibliography 78
  • Chapter 4 - Economic Development 81
  • Notes to the Text 111
  • Selected Bibliography 112
  • Chapter 5 - Transportation 114
  • Notes to the Text 144
  • Selected Bibliography 146
  • Chapter 6 - Political and Administrative Structure 147
  • Notes to the Text 173
  • Selected Bibliography 173
  • Chapter 7 - Ideology 176
  • Notes to the Text 203
  • Selected Bibliography 203
  • Chapter 8 - Education 206
  • Notes to the Text 224
  • Selected Bibliography 225
  • Chapter 9 - System of Controls 228
  • Notes to the Text 264
  • Selected Bibliography 265
  • Chapter 10 - Armed Forces 268
  • Notes to the Text 300
  • Selected Bibliography 301
  • Chapter 11 - Communist Parties and the Communist International 303
  • Notes to the Text 332
  • Selected Bibliography 333
  • Chapter 12 - Foreign Trade The Organization of Foreign Trade 335
  • Notes to the Text 365
  • Selected Bibliography 366
  • Chapter 13 - Foreign Policy 370
  • Notes to the Text 390
  • Selected Bibliography 391
  • Part Three - Soviet Expansion in Eurasia 393
  • Chapter 14 - Strategy and Tactics of Expansion 395
  • Notes to the Text 416
  • Selected Bibliography 417
  • Chapter 15 - Western Europe 419
  • Notes to the Text 441
  • Selected Bibliography 441
  • Chapter 16 - Eastern Europe 444
  • Notes to the Text 464
  • Selected Bibliography 465
  • Chapter 17 - The Near and Middle East 468
  • Notes to the Text 493
  • Selected Bibliography 495
  • Chapter 18 - Southeast Asia 498
  • Notes to the Text 532
  • Selected Bibliography 533
  • Chapter 19 - Northeast Asia 536
  • Notes to the Text 562
  • Selected Bibliography 563
  • Part Four - The Sovíet Uníon and the United States 565
  • Chapter 20 - Geopolitical Positions 567
  • Notes to the Text 586
  • Selected Bibliography 587
  • Index 589
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