Soviet Power and Policy

By George B. De Huszar | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 8
Education

EDUCATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF POLICY

In November of 1920, Lenin said: "Calling any education 'apolitical' or 'non-political' is a bourgeois hypocrisy and nothing but a fraud upon the masses."1 Just one month earlier, Lenin had stated the positive aspect of his theories when he declared:

The whole object of the training, education and tuition of the youth of today should be to imbue them with Communist ethics. . . . We repudiate all morality that is taken outside of human, class concepts. . . . We say that our morality is entirely subordinated to the interests of the class struggle of the proletariat. . . . is deduced from the class struggle of the proletariat. . . . The class struggle is still proceeding, and our task is to subordinate everything to the interests of this struggle. . . . Morality is that which serves to destroy the old exploiting society and to unite all the toilers around the proletariat. . . . For the Communist, morality consists entirely of compact united discipline and conscious mass struggle against the exploiters. . . . At the basis of Communist morality lies the struggle for the consolidation and consummation of Communism. That also is the basis of Communist training, education and tuition. . . . The school must make [our youth] participants in the struggle for emancipation from the exploiters. . . . [Our youth] must realize that the whole purpose of its life is to build [Communist] society.2

Never since Lenin laid down these maxims have the Soviet leaders wavered from their policy of using education as an instrument to create the type of society they envision. His views on the subject have been quoted by Kalinin, Zhdanov, Molotov, and Stalin -- in fact, by all the political leaders who have paid any attention to education. That many of the professional educators themselves have accepted, at least vocally, this policy is indicated by the writings of Lunacharsky, Krupskaia, Pistrak, Pinkevitch, Potemkin, Medinsky, Pankratova, and others. In the middle 1930's, one of these educators almost echoed Lenin in describing

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Soviet Power and Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Authors ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • Part One - Background of Soviet Power 1
  • Chapter 1 - The Success of Kremlin Policy 3
  • Notes to the Text 23
  • Selected Bibliography 24
  • Part Two - Soviet Power 27
  • Chapter 2 - Lands and Resources Lands 29
  • Notes to the Text 53
  • Selected Bibliography 53
  • Chapter 3 - Characteristics of the Population 55
  • Notes to the Text 76
  • Selected Bibliography 78
  • Chapter 4 - Economic Development 81
  • Notes to the Text 111
  • Selected Bibliography 112
  • Chapter 5 - Transportation 114
  • Notes to the Text 144
  • Selected Bibliography 146
  • Chapter 6 - Political and Administrative Structure 147
  • Notes to the Text 173
  • Selected Bibliography 173
  • Chapter 7 - Ideology 176
  • Notes to the Text 203
  • Selected Bibliography 203
  • Chapter 8 - Education 206
  • Notes to the Text 224
  • Selected Bibliography 225
  • Chapter 9 - System of Controls 228
  • Notes to the Text 264
  • Selected Bibliography 265
  • Chapter 10 - Armed Forces 268
  • Notes to the Text 300
  • Selected Bibliography 301
  • Chapter 11 - Communist Parties and the Communist International 303
  • Notes to the Text 332
  • Selected Bibliography 333
  • Chapter 12 - Foreign Trade The Organization of Foreign Trade 335
  • Notes to the Text 365
  • Selected Bibliography 366
  • Chapter 13 - Foreign Policy 370
  • Notes to the Text 390
  • Selected Bibliography 391
  • Part Three - Soviet Expansion in Eurasia 393
  • Chapter 14 - Strategy and Tactics of Expansion 395
  • Notes to the Text 416
  • Selected Bibliography 417
  • Chapter 15 - Western Europe 419
  • Notes to the Text 441
  • Selected Bibliography 441
  • Chapter 16 - Eastern Europe 444
  • Notes to the Text 464
  • Selected Bibliography 465
  • Chapter 17 - The Near and Middle East 468
  • Notes to the Text 493
  • Selected Bibliography 495
  • Chapter 18 - Southeast Asia 498
  • Notes to the Text 532
  • Selected Bibliography 533
  • Chapter 19 - Northeast Asia 536
  • Notes to the Text 562
  • Selected Bibliography 563
  • Part Four - The Sovíet Uníon and the United States 565
  • Chapter 20 - Geopolitical Positions 567
  • Notes to the Text 586
  • Selected Bibliography 587
  • Index 589
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