"There can be no equality of opportunity, the first essential in the body of politics, if men and women and children be not shielded in their lives, their very vitality, from the consequences of great industrial and social processes which they cannot alter, control or singly cope with." (From inaugural address of Woodrow Wilson, Washington, March 4, 1913.)
WE may now review Canada's position on the nine methods and principles of the Labor Section. The first, that labor should not be regarded merely as a commodity, has received important recognition in the exclusion of trade unions from the operation of the combination laws. On the second, freedom of association for employers and employed, employers' associations have been little used for purposes of industrial relations in Canada. There has been no interpretation of the principle by convention or recommendation but as compared with British standards Canadian workers have a very restricted right of association. Trade unions are open to charges of criminal and civil conspiracy and their funds are liable to seizure to satisfy damage actions. While the law grants the right to strike for certain stated objects, sympathetic strikes have been held illegal. Canadian unions do not enjoy the protection with regard to picketing and injunctions granted under the law of Great Britain but are more nearly in the precarious position of the unions of the United States.
The Canadian legislation bearing on the third point, the payment of a wage adequate to maintain a reasonable stand-