Arms Control and the Arab-Israeli Peace Process
THE conference on Middle East peace held in Madrid at the beginning of November 1991 and the initiation of bilateral negotiations between Israel and its key Arab neighbours have highlighted the agenda of issues that need to be resolved before a comprehensive Arab-Israeli peace will be possible.1 The most difficult substantive questions relate to geographic borders, political legitimacy, the right of return of the Palestinians, Israeli settlement activity, reparations, and compensation, access to resources such as water and the status of Jerusalem, as well as relations between Israel, a Palestinian entity, and the Arab countries, and security questions, including arms control and mutual-force and weapons limitations. The focus of this chapter is on the relationship between arms control and the peace process.
Arms control covers a wide variety of initiatives--unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral--and can cover the gamut from informal, confidence-building measures such as red lines establishing military ground rules between adversaries, to formal, multilateral treaties to eliminate entire classes of armaments, such as nuclear and chemical weapons. The peace process refers to a complicated series of negotiations between adversaries that passes through at least three distinct, but integrally linked stages. These can be identified as: pre-negotiations, negotiations, and post- negotiations. At each phase different agreements are necessary to____________________