Language and Languages: An Introduction to Linguistics

By Willem L. Graff | Go to book overview

PHONETIC AND OTHER SYMBOLS

In the following list the symbol = is not intended to express identity but approximation. Throughout the text phonetic symbols are enclosed in brackets. Phonetic transliteration is resorted to only where special reasons make it advisable.

[ɑ]=the first vowel of Engl. father and the vowel of Fr. pas.
[a]=the first vowel of Germ. Vater, the vowel of Fr. la, and the
first element of the diphthong [aI] in Engl. high.
[æ]=the vowel of Engl. fat and of Du. vet.
[e]=the first element of the diphthong [eI] in Engl. fate, the
vowel of Germ. seht and of Fr. été.
[ε]=the first element of the diphthong [εǝ] in Engl. fair, the
vowel of Germ. Brett and of Fr. Même.
[ǝ]=the vowel of Engl. fur and the second vowel of Engl. father
and of Germ. Vater.
[i]=the vowel of Engl. flee, of Germ. sie, and of Fr. il.
[I]=the vowel of Engl. thick and of Du. ik and the semi-vowel of
the diphthongs [aI] and [eI]
[o]=the first element of the diphthong [ in Engl. so, the vowel
of Germ. so and of Fr. eau.
[ɔ]=the vowel of Engl. pot, of Germ. Topf, and of Fr. sotte.
[œ]=the first vowel of Germ. Köpfe and the vowel of Fr. sœeur.
[ϕ]=the vowel of Germ. Köpfe and the Fr. peu.
[u]=the vowel of Engl. you, of Germ. du, and of Fr. sou.
[℧]=the vowel of Engl. foot.
[ʼ]=the vowel of Engl. but.
[y]=the vowel of Germ. Süss and of Fr. du.
[c]=indicates a glide at the end of a spoken text
˙after a vowel means long.
̄over a nonphonetic symbol means long.
̆over a nonphonetic symbol means short.

-xxvii-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Language and Languages: An Introduction to Linguistics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • Illustrations xxiii
  • Abbreviations xxv
  • Phonetic and Other Symbols xxvii
  • Glossary xxxi
  • Part I - Constituents and Mechanism 1
  • Chapter I - The Phonetic Element in Language 3
  • Chapter II - Meaning 71
  • Chapter III - Units of Signification 94
  • Chapter IV - Accentuation 161
  • Chapter V - Categorizing in Language 186
  • Part II - Drift and Diversification 213
  • Chapter VI - Phonetic Change 215
  • Chapter VII - Causes of Phonetic and Linguistic Change 258
  • Chapter VIII - Changes Involving Meaning 277
  • Chapter IX - Principles of Language Classification 319
  • Chapter X - The Indo-European Family 352
  • Chapter XI - The Non-Indo-European Languages 397
  • Index 473
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 492

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.