teristics of the girls. The commentary chapter by Crockett (chap. 5) discusses conceptual models of developmental pathways, as well as the role of the social context in shaping pathways and promoting continuity in behavior.
The second section focuses on the impact of social contexts on the lives of African-American adolescents. Winfield (chap. 6) addresses the issue of resilience, focusing on the potential role of the school and community in fostering healthy development among African-American adolescents. Burton, Allison, and Obeidallah (chap. 7) address the role of poverty in shaping the developmental paths of inner-city youth. The commentary by McHale (chap. 8) examines the implications of research findings on African-American youth for developmental theory and interventions.
The third section of the volume examines the interrelations among key social contexts (family, peers, and school), and how they influence adolescents' behavior, choices, and preparation for adulthood. Brown and Huang (chap. 9) discuss the capacity of the peer group to moderate the effects of parenting style on adolescent behavior. Eckert (chap. 10) illustrates how the "fit" between the institutional goals of the high school and the values of different peer groups create divergent high school experiences among youth and shape their orientations toward social institutions in general. The commentary by Silbereisen (chap. 11) presents alternative interpretations of some of the data on peer groups presented in these chapters.
The fourth section focuses on community-based approaches to research and interventions with adolescents. Small (chap. 12) presents a collaborative model, in which researchers and communities cooperate to implement research on youth and to develop interventions to facilitate positive outcomes. The commentary by Ebata (chap. 13) focuses on key issues raised by Small's "community-based action-research" model, and points to gaps in the current research base. In the final chapter and section, Steinberg (chap. 14) offers an overall commentary on the volume and the field of adolescent development. He chronicles the sequence of conceptual models of adolescent development, compares this to the current volume's focus on pathways and social contexts, and suggests some directions for future research and policy initiatives.
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