than to initiate them. In either case, one could argue for earlier intervention so that parents will be ready to monitor effectively by the ninth grade -- when it might be especially important, or when the effects of monitoring would be most apparent.
Although these two explanations can be explored with further analysis of existing data (e.g., comparing variances in binge drinking and monitoring across grade levels), longitudinal data on several cohorts would be necessary to adequately address issues that may be important for prevention programming and evaluation, as well as for understanding adolescent development.
The TAP is an excellent example of how a community-based action-research approach can enhance the community context for youth, as well as our understanding of how community contexts influence adolescent development. In his chapter, Small describes some of the potential benefits to this approach. Although there are some limitations and challenges in using this approach, there are also methods to ensure that it can be a rich and fruitful model for how research can inform and be informed by application.
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