mitter dysfunction was discussed in the context of behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition functions involving the interaction of the noradrenergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Imbalances in these three systems could be seen in common childhood psychiatric disorders including depression, ADHD, CD, and Tourette's syndrome. Depression was associated with increased NE and serotonin and lower levels of DA, ADHD with lower levels of NE, CD with lower levels of NE and 5HT, and Tourette's syndrome with increased dopaminergic activity and decreased serotonergic function. Although the questions remain as to how all these influences including genetic, physical, environmental, physiological, and neurochemical interact, it is clear that for physically, emotionally, and behaviorally handicapped children these are important considerations, and insofar as possible they should be incorporated as measures in multivariate approaches to the problem and to designing interventions for the children.
We would like to thank the children, teachers, and parents who participated in these studies and the researchers who helped with data collection and analyses. This research was supported by an NIMH Research Scientist Award (#MH00331), an NIMH Research Grant (#MH46586) to Tiffany Field, and funding from Johnson and Johnson.
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