expression, appraisal, and regulation of emotion according to the type of psychopathology that children have. The presence of patterns in these emotion skills, rather than simple differences between nondiagnosed and diagnosed children, may indicate that emotion processes are important components of children's functioning. Emotional development may be altered by psychopathology, or atypical emotional development may contribute to the occurrence of psychopathology. The origin of these patterns, and possibly their relation to the children's psychopathology and other areas of functioning, present compelling hypotheses to be explored concerning the relations between the emergence of childhood behavior disorders and the course of emotional development.
Support from the National Institute for Mental Health via PHS grant MH49229 is gratefully acknowledged. My thanks also to members of the emotional development labs at the University of Iowa and Wayne State University for their assistance with this research, and to Carolyn Saarni, Nancy Eisenberg, and Susanne Denham for previous discussions that contributed to my thinking.
Achenbach T. M., & Edelbrock C. S. ( 1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.
Altmann E. O., & Gotlib I. H. ( 1988). "The social behavior of depressed children: An observational study". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 29-44.
American Psychiatric Association. ( 1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. ( 1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Campos J. J., Campos R. G., & Barrett K. C. ( 1989). "Emergent themes in the study of emotional development and emotion regulation". Developmental Psychology, 25, 394-402.
Casey R. J., Hill K., Witherington D., Wiecek K., & Greer A. E. ( 1994). Behavior-disordered children recognize pure and blended emotions. Unpublished manuscript.
Casey R. J., Loge D. V., Schatz J., Whitmore E., & Schumacher E. ( 1991, April). Social interactions of children with attention deficit disorder: The role of emotions and self-control. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.
Casey R. J., & Murphy B. C. ( 1991, April). Emotional and behavioral effects of background anger on aggressive children. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.