|1.||Present new material in small steps to that the working memory does not become overloaded.|
|2.||Help students develop an organization for the new material.|
|3.||Guide student practice by (a) supporting students during initial practice, and (b) providing for extensive student processing.|
|4.||When teaching higher level tasks, support students by providing them with cognitive strategies.|
|5.||Help students learn to use the cognitive strategies by providing them with procedural prompts and modeling the use of these procedural prompts.|
|6.||Provide for extensive student practice.|
Thirty years ago, particularly with the publication of the first Handbook of Research on Teaching ( Gage, 1963) and the investment of public and private funds into research, we began an extensive program of research and development in education. This chapter is an attempt to highlight some of the major results that have been obtained in the area of instruction, results which have relevance for today's teachers and students.
Alvermann D. E. ( 1981). "The compensatory effect of graphic organizers on descriptive text". Journal of Educational Research, 75, 44-48.