Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities

By Edward J. Kameenui; David Chard et al. | Go to book overview

the two together. Slaughter ( 1988) reported that most of the whole language teachers she interviewed used both indirect and direct teaching methods. Similarly, Pressley, Rankin, and Yokoi (in press) found that outstanding teachers of reading and writing typically blend together whole language and explicit skills instruction. Examples of using both whole language/process writing and more explicit methods are also becoming more frequent in the research literature (cf. Castle, Riach, & Nicholson, 1994; Englert et al., 1994: MacArthur et al., in press). Although some whole language advocates would have us believe that you cannot have a little of whole language and a little of something else (cf. Goodman, 1989), many practitioners have already moved beyond these polemics by drawing on different theories and methodologies to meet the needs of individual children. This is especially critical for students with special needs, as one approach does not fit all.


REFERENCES

Adams M. ( 1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Alamasi J., Palmer B., Gambrell L., & Pressley M. ( 1994). "Toward disciplined inquiry: A methodological analysis of whole-language". Educational Psychologist, 28, 193-202.

Allen J. ( 1988). Literacy development in whole language kindergartens (Tech. Rep. No. 436). Urbana: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for the Study of Reading. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 300 780)

Allen J., Michalove B., Shockley B., & West M. ( 1991). "I'm really worried about Joseph: Reducing the risks of literacy learning". Reading Teacher, 44, 458-472.

Allington R. ( 1983). "The reading instruction provided readers of differing reading ability". Elementary School Journal, 83, 548-559.

Allington R. ( 1994). "What's special about special programs for children who find learning to read difficult". Journal of Reading Behavior, 26, 95-115.

Allington R., & McGill-Franzen A. ( 1989). "Different programs, indifferent instruction". In D. Lipsky & A. Gartner (Eds.), Beyond separate education: Quality education for all (pp. 75-98). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Atwell N. ( 1987). In the middle: Reading, writing, and learning from adolescents. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

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Bock J. ( 1989, November). Portraits of six developing readers in a whole language classroom. Paper presented at the National Reading Conference, Austin, TX.

Brown A., & Campione J. ( 1990). "Interactive learning environments and the teaching of science and mathematics". In M. J. Gardner Green F. Reif, A. Schoenfield, A. di Sessa, & E. Stage (Eds.), Toward a scientific practice of science education (pp. 112-139). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Calkins L. ( 1981). "Case study of a nine year old writer". In D. Graves (Ed.), A case study observing the development of primary children's composing, spelling, and motor behavior during the writing process (pp. 239-262). Durham: University of New Hampshire.

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