the two together. Slaughter ( 1988) reported that most of the whole language teachers she interviewed used both indirect and direct teaching methods. Similarly, Pressley, Rankin, and Yokoi (in press) found that outstanding teachers of reading and writing typically blend together whole language and explicit skills instruction. Examples of using both whole language/process writing and more explicit methods are also becoming more frequent in the research literature (cf. Castle, Riach, & Nicholson, 1994; Englert et al., 1994: MacArthur et al., in press). Although some whole language advocates would have us believe that you cannot have a little of whole language and a little of something else (cf. Goodman, 1989), many practitioners have already moved beyond these polemics by drawing on different theories and methodologies to meet the needs of individual children. This is especially critical for students with special needs, as one approach does not fit all.
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