to this order, exploring the content and implications of each paradigm. Second, it
documents the development of national party responses to the contemporary order,
which culminated in the common political practices of the 1980s and 1990s. By
demonstrating the confluence of factional politics with arguments over paradigms
of analysis and action, it shows that the historical developments of the campaign-
centered order have emerged from intensely political processes, without any obvious or preordained outcome.
Analytically, the book's central value is in outlining a new way of thinking
about American electoral politics, one that may offer a fuller, more comprehensive
analysis than the piecemeal "party system" and "party decline/resurgence" approaches. By investigating the interrelated components of the contemporary electoral order--professionalized campaigns, struggling parties, competitive and often
"split-level" elections, a fragmented and changing electorate, and so on--we can
better understand America's troubled version of representative democracy.
Jeff Fishel, ed., Parties and Elections in an Anti-Party Age: American Politics and the Crisis of
Confidence ( Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1978); Everett Carll Ladd, Where
Have All the Voters Gone? The Fracturing of America's Political Parties, 2d ed. ( New York: Norton, 1982); and William J. Crotty and
Gary C. Jacobson, American Parties in Decline
( Boston: Little, Brown, 1980).
Barbara G. Salmore and
Stephen A. Salmore, Candidates, Parties and Campaigns: Electoral
Politics in America, 2d ed. ( Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1989); Alan Ehrenhalt, The United
States of Ambition: Politicians, Power, and the Pursuit of Office ( New York: Times Books, 1991); Martin P. Wattenberg, The Rise of Candidate Centered Politics: Presidential Elections of
the 1980s ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991).
See, for example, David Price, Bringing Back the Parties ( Washington, DC: CQ Press, 1984); Xandra Kayden and
Eddie Mahe Jr., The Party Goes On ( New York: Basic Books, 1985); Larry J. Sabato, The Party's Just Begun (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown, 1988);
and Paul S. Herrnson, Party Campaigning in the 1980s ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard, 1988).
Philip A. Klinkner, ed., Midterm: The Elections of 1994 in Context ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996).
See, for example, Daniel M. Shea and
John C. Green, eds., The State of the Parties: The
Changing Role of Contemporary American Parties
(Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994); and James A. Thurber and
Candice J. Nelson, ed., Campaigns and Elections American
( Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1995).
Lawrence C. Dodd and William E. Hudson have independently developed similar democratic standards. See Dodd, "Congress and the Politics of Renewal: Redressing the Crisis ofLegitimation,"