Second, the approaches adopted by Hurd and the Bank are based on rather peculiar and limited theories of history which argue for convergence and which are based on a particular view of human nature embedded in western culture.
Third and finally, in practice the statements from the Bank, from Mr Hurd and from Mrs Chalker, can only have limited impact on the design and formation of aid projects. In part this is the result of the poverty of their models of development which makes them unworkable; in part it is the result of the ambiguous nature of concepts such as 'empowerment' which allow and encourage 'anti-market' forms of intervention to continue.
Lynda Chalker: Speech to the Africa Private Enterprise Group, 12 December 1990.
Lynda Chalker: 'Good Government and the Aid Programme'. Speech at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 25 June 1991.
"Lynda Chalker: 'Giving Aid to the Third World, with Strings Attached'". The Sunday Times. 18.8. 1991.
Douglas Hurd: Speech to the Overseas Development Institute. 6 June 1990.
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