Charges of Ethics Violations Considered by Congress, 1789-1992
The lists that follow include all ethics charges of which Congress took official notice by issuing a statement, report, or by taking some formal action. Some charges that were dismissed or not proven are therefore included. Charges that ethics committees may have considered but for which they produced no public record are not included. Neither are criminal charges or convictions on which Congress took no action. Also excluded are cases involving treason (twenty-five), election qualifications not involving corruption (fourteen), and decorum on the floor (twenty). All but fifteen of these cases occurred in the nineteenth century.
The classification by type of corruption is based on the three- element definitions presented in chapter 2. Corruption in which the gain is personal, the service undeserved, and the connection based on a corrupt motive is treated as purely individual. Corruption in