TOWERS AND SPIRES
TOWERS were built from quite early imperial times in Italy, and the tradition lasted through the Middle Ages, when they served not only for the hanging of bells, which were in use from the time of Constantine, but as places of refuge and defence and as signs of power. Over thirty still remain in Rome dating from the beginning of the ninth to the end of the eleventh century.1 It was from them, and from such examples as S. Satiro in Milan (879, p. 175), that the Anglo-Saxons and Normans took the idea, and even the design, of those which they raised along the coasts of East Anglia and Calvados as watch-towers and refuges against the Danes.
At the same time along the great trade-routes of Southwestern France, by the side of nearly every large church, were being built towers which also took their origin from Rome. Derived partly from these, partly from Normandy, there appears somewhat suddenly in the twelfth century in the district west of Paris, between Nantes and Chartres, a type of tower and spire combined, of the highest artistic merit, which gave the character to all those of the great thirteenth- century churches. Many of the earlier specimens must have disappeared; the chief ones left are Limay, then Vernouillet ( 1190); La Trinité, Vendôme, and finally the south-west tower of Chartres. This is not a tower with an independent spire placed upon it, which, however carefully designed, never combine quite perfectly into one composition, but from base to summit a single pyramidal design in which every part grows out of that below and leads the eve up to____________________