Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust

By Carol Rittner; John K. Roth | Go to book overview

22
Ida Fink

So you remember precisely . . .

IDA FINK

In her poem "We Jews,"which provides the epigraph for this third part of Different Voices, Gertrud Kolmarcried out:

If only I could raise my voice to be a blazing torch Amidst the darkening desert of the world, and thunder: JUSTICE! JUSTICE! JUSTICE!

She wrote those words before the Holocaust happened. After Auschwitz the intensity of their yearning escalates. It does so because the immensity of the "Final Solution" mocked justice and still does. The dead cannot return; the survivors must cope with the ruins of memory. The perpetrators have overwhelmed the resources and determination needed to bring them to judgment. Even the credibility of God to do so has been impugned, for, as Vera Laska once put it, "In Auschwitz God, finding it impossible to cope, went on an extended vacation, as if replaced by a sign: 'For the duration, this office is closed.'"

At the end of World War II there were courtroom efforts to keep the "Final Solution" from mocking justice completely. Sporadically those judicial proceedings have continued into the 1990s. Among the most famous of the war crimes trials were those held by the International Military Tribunal in the German city of Nuremberg from October 18, 1945, until October 1, 1946. Twenty-two of Nazi Germany's top leaders stood trial there. Three of the defendants were acquitted of the charges brought against them. The sentences of the nineteen found guilty ranged from ten-

-332-

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Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • ALSO BY CAROL RITTNER AND JOHN K. ROTH ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Maps and Photographs ix
  • Preface xi
  • Prologue Women and the Holocaust 1
  • General Suggestions for Further Reading 20
  • Chronology 22
  • Part One Voices of Experience 35
  • Notes 39
  • 1: Ida Fink 40
  • 2: Etty Hillesum 46
  • Notes 57
  • 3: Charlotte Delbo 58
  • 4: Isabella Leitner 65
  • 5: Olga Lengyel 69
  • 6: Livia E. Bitton Jackson 73
  • 7: Pelagia Lewinska 84
  • 8: Charlotte Delbo 99
  • 9: Gisella Perl 104
  • 10: Olga Lengyel 119
  • 11: Anna Heilman and Rose Meth 130
  • Notes 134
  • Notes 141
  • 12: Sara Nomberg-Przytyk 143
  • Suggestions for Further Reading 149
  • Part Two Voices of Interpretation 155
  • Notes 159
  • 13: Gisela Bock 161
  • Notes 179
  • 14: Marion A. Kaplan 187
  • Notes 207
  • 15: Sybil Milton 213
  • Notes 237
  • 16: Vera Laska 250
  • Notes 267
  • 17: Gitta Sereny 270
  • Preface 271
  • 18: Claudia Koonz 287
  • Notes 304
  • 19: Magda Trocmeé 309
  • Suggestions for Further Reading 317
  • Part Three Voices of Reflection 319
  • Notes 323
  • 20: Irena Klepfisz 324
  • 21: Charlotte Delbo 328
  • 22: Ida Fink 332
  • 23: Deborah E. Lipstadt 349
  • 24: Mary Jo Leddy 355
  • 25: Rachel Altman 363
  • Notes 372
  • 26: Joan Ringelheim 373
  • Notes 400
  • Appendices 406
  • Suggestions for Further Reading 419
  • Epilogue - Different Voices 421
  • Notes 426
  • Glossary 427
  • Index 431
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