SOCIAL INCIDENCE AND SOCIAL EMERGENCIES
Social Incidence. In earlier chapters of this volume we emphasized the importance of knowing that situations in the social world do not just happen without cause or effect, any more than they do in the physical world. The fact that causes of social problems may be more remote, more complex, less easily subject to analysis, renders them not less but more important and more far-reaching as well. It has been a common mistake of current judgments to ignore causes. In this volume we have attempted to point out some of the major backgrounds of social problems and social development. We have pointed out the importance of the great social institutions, each of which will be treated in a later chapter. We have discussed the social forces of leadership, of social change, and of general physical environment. We now come to another large force, perhaps more difficult, more intangible, but none the less vital and real. This force involves that large group of factors found in what we shall call social incidence, a term often used and implied by Professor Giddings. This will include mass actions, mobs, fads, panics, strikes, riots, war, and other miscellaneous situations arising from "Providence" and unforeUV+00AD seen physical and social upheavals, for which the individual and the group must be prepared.
In Common Law and Life. In law and business, society has taken cognizance of things beyond ordinary control through special clauses, exemptions, and restrictions. "Acts of God," variously interpreted, are exempt from human liability. Insurance companies set restrictions on participation in war and certain types of hazardous occupations which are subject to natural dangs. Substitutes for the control of nature are provided for in rain, storm, and other types of insurance against damage done by the elements. These and many other methods by which man adapts himself to the unknown forces of nature and society are objective ways of recognizing their reality. Crises of varying sorts