INTERNATIONAL, NATIONAL, AND REGIONAL PROBLEMS
Modern International and Regional Problems. From the study of the last two chapters it is clear that place, regions, territorial divisions, and kindred areas constitute important backgrounds of social problems as well as concrete media through which various social forces act. We have seen how the physical environment plays an important part in society and culture, how the economic and political institutions are affected, how "the region which nurtures man is endowed by him with psychological significance." We have seen also how war and conflict are closely linked up with the same influences and situations. We now come to the further study of larger group relationships as found in international situations and what Professor Turner has called "Regions and Nations." We have already referred to the conflict between the western civilization with its machine tendencies and the eastern civilizations with their opposing influences. We come now to review briefly the backgrounds of modern social problems which are found in international relations, in national character and influences, and in regional and sectional situations within our own American nation. Such a review will be necessary, not only for the purpose of enumerating actual national and regional problems but also for the very practical means of throwing light on the institutional problems which are to be studied in later chapters.
America and Regional Influences. In the general effect of geography and physical environment upon character and culture America appears to be poorer than most other nations. In his introduction to Mukerjee Regional Sociology, Professor E. A. Ross says: "I suppose no large population shows so faint and doubtful a response to region as we Americans. Never before were folk of forest or valley, of sea or river delta, so little insulated. Our education, reading matter, films, sports, standardized ar-