IMMIGRATION AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS
Race and Immigration . Many of the problems and situations which arise from immigration and the general movement of diverse population groups are closely related to the problems of race. Some of the intersocial situations have already been studied in our chapter on Race and Society. That is, in listing the forty or more ethnic strains which go to make up the population of the United States, we laid the groundwork for the future study of certain groups of people, more or less homogeneous biologically and living under fairly uniform physical and social environment. Mr. N. D. M. Hirsch, in his study of Natio-Racial Mental Differences, emphasizes this diversity of our population by suggesting that the most important human unit is neither the nation nor race, but as Professor Huntington puts it, the stock. To confirm this view, Mr. Hirsch finds great variation of intelligence according to ethnic strains, ranking the Polish Jews with an I. Q. of 102.8 per cent as the highest and the Portuguese as the lowest with 82.7. In the order of high scoring then follow the Swedes, English, Russian-Jews, Germans, Americans (Anglo-Saxon), Lithuanians, Irish, British-Canadians, Russians, Poles, Greeks, Italians, FrenchCanadians, Negroes. Thus our American immigration problem is, after all, closely related to our race problem. In the preceding chapter we gave special attention to the Negro, and we may begin now our study of immigration with concrete reference to other races, especially to the Japanese and Chinese, who constitute the chief racial basis of our immigration problems.
Oriental Immigration . The problem of oriental immigration in America centers largely in the Pacific Coast states, and deals primarily with the Chinese, Japanese, and a few East Indians or Hindus. In addition to the usual problems in this field the immigration of Asiatics involves differences in racial stock, and national tradition and far lower standards of living and work. It is easy to see how, in earlier days, Chinese and Japanese immigrants