African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice

By Kassie Freeman | Go to book overview

Self-Blame versus System Blame

Four Forced-choice items, each asking for the statement most agreed with (1) "The attempt to 'fit in' and do what's proper hasn't paid off for Blacks. It doesn't matter how 'proper' you are, you'll still face serious discrimination if you are Black;" or (2) "The problem for many Blacks is that they really are not acceptable by American standards; or (3) "Many Blacks have only themselves to blame for not doing better in life. If they tried harder, they would do better;" or (4) "When two qualified people, one Black and one White, are considered for the same job, the Black will not get the job no matter how hard she/he tries."


Modifiability of Discrimination

Two Forced-choice items, each asking for the statement most agreed with (1) "The recent upsurge in conservatism shows once again that Whites are so opposed to Blacks getting their rights that it is practically impossible to end discrimination in America;" or (2) "The recent upsurge in conservatism has been exaggerated. Certainly enough Whites support the goals of the Black cause for Americans to see considerable progress in wiping out discrimination."


Individual Mobility versus Collective Action

Two Forced-choice items, each asking for the statement most agreed with (1) "The best way to overcome discrimination is through pressure and social action;" or (2) "The best way to overcome discrimination is for each individual Black to be even better trained and more qualified than the most qualified White person."


Internal-External Control Ideology

Two Forced-choice items, each asking for the statement most agreed with (1) "People who do not do well in life often work hard, but the breaks just do not come their way;" or (2) "Some people just do not use the breaks that come their way. If they do not do well, it is their own fault."


REFERENCES

Abramowitz E. ( 1976). Equal educational opportunity for Blacks in US. higher education. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Educational Policy, Howard University.

Allen W. R., & Jewell J. O. ( 1995). African American education since "An American dilemma": An American dilemma revisited. Daedalus, 124( 1), 77-100.

Carmichael S., & Hamilton C. ( 1967). Black power: The politics of liberation in America. New York: Vintage Books.

Cross W. E., Jr. ( 1991). Shades of Black: Diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University.

Deskins D. ( 1983). Minority recruitment data: An analysis of baccalaureate degree production in the United States. Totawa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld.

DuBois W. E.B., et al. ( 1903). The talented tenth. In B. T. Washington (Ed.), The negro problem: A series of articles by representative negroes of today (pp. 33-75). Ne w York: James Pott and Company. (Reprinted in J. Lester [Ed.], The seventh son: The thought and writings of W.E.B. DuBois, Vol. 1 [pp. 385-403]. New York: Vintage Books, 1971).

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