African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice

By Kassie Freeman | Go to book overview
6.
Adjectives such as "random" and "miscellaneous" are similar in meaning to the phrase "Uncle Tom" and are used by some Black students at Western to describe those Black students who associate primarily with Whites.
7.
There are four stages to the Racial Identity Attitude Scale ( RIAS)--preencounter, encounter, immersion/emersion, and internalization. The RIAS was developed by Parham and Helms to measure racial identity attitudes reflective of four of the five stages of racial identity proposed by Cross ( 1971, 1978) in his model of psychological Nigrescense. The first stage, Preencounter, is characterized by the belief that Blacks are inferior to Whites and a preference for the values and behaviors associated with Whites. Stage two, encounter, is an exploring stage where the individual begins the transition from an anti-Black to a pro- Black stance. Stage three, immersion/emersion, is the complete endorsement of Black values to the exclusion of those perceived to be White and an all-consuming urge to understand, incorporate, and relate to the experience of being Black. The fourth stage, internalization, is a selective acceptance of values from both Black and White cultures. Although these stages can be thought of as a progression from stage one to stage four, individuals can also remain at a particular stage indefinitely.
8.
One might be tempted to explain within-group diversity among Black students, particularly with respect to racial identity attitudes, as reflective of socioeconomic class differences. However, Carter and Helms ( 1988) found that socioeconomic status did not predict differences in racial identity attitudes among Black students.

REFERENCES

Allen W. ( 1985). Black student, White campus: Structural, interpersonal, and psychological correlates of success. Journal of Negro Education, 54( 2), 134-147.

Allen W. ( 1988). The education of Black students on White college campuses: What Quality the experience? In M. Nettles (Ed.), Toward Black undergraduate student equality in American higher education (pp. 57-86). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Allen W., Epps E. G., & Haniff N. (Eds.). ( 1991). College in Black and White: African American students in predominantly White and in historically Black public universities. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Bangura A. ( 1992). The limitations of survey research methods in assessing the problem of minority student retention in higher education. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press.

Bryman A. ( 1988). Quantity and quality in social research. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

Carter R., & Helms J. ( 1988). The relationship between racial identity attitudes and social class. Journal of Negro Education, 57( 1), 22-30.

Chickering A. W. ( 1969). Education and identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Coons F. ( 1970). The resolution of adolescence in college. The Personnel and Guidance Journal, 48, 533-541.

Cross W. F. ( 1978). The negro to Black conversion experience: Towards a psychology of Black liberation. Black World, 20( 9), 13-27.

Denzin N. K. ( 1989). The research act. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Fleming J. ( 1984). Blacks in college: A comparative study of students' success in Black and White institutions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gumport P. ( 1993). Fired faculty: Reflections on marginalization and academic identity. In D. McLaughlin & W. Tierney (Eds.), Naming silence lives: Personal narratives and processes of education change (pp. 135-154). New York: Routledge.

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