African-American Women's Health and Social Issues

By Catherine Fisher Collins | Go to book overview

channel blockers to the increased morbidity and mortality among patients with coronary artery disease ( Oparil, 1988; Kaplan, 1992; Hildreth & Saunders, 1991).


CONCLUSION

Black women have hypertension much more frequently than white women and it is also much more severe. The cause of hypertension is unknown but there is no doubt that genetics, obesity, and stress along with humoral and cellular mechanisms play contributing complex roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Black women also tend to have more side effects related to hypertension. The treatment should be multifaceted and the nonpharmacological therapeutic modalities cannot be overlooked or minimized in importance. Medical therapy is important in order to avoid or delay the end organ damage associated with hypertension and that disproportionately affects black women, including eye disease, heart disease, heart failure, kidney disease, and stroke. The cost of medicine is high and many black women are unable to afford their medical regimen. Health care providers must continue to fashion innovative strategies for the care of these patients in order to avoid premature death and disability. Finally, we cannot attack this multisystem disease without a concerted effort to confront the ills of society that contribute directly and inexorably to the magnitude of this epidemic.


WORKS CITED

Dannenberg A. L., Drizd T. & Horan M. J. et al. ( 1987). "Progress in the battle against hypertension: Changes in blood pressure levels in the United States from 1960 to 1980". Hypertension, 10, 226.

Drayer J. & Zegarelli E. ( 1989). Hypertension and pregnancy. In P. Douglas, ed., Heart Disease in Women. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.

Fox K. & Shapiro L. ( 1986). Color Atlas of Hypertension. London: Wolfe Medical Publisher, distributor for Year Book Medical Publishers.

Gross T. P., Wise R. P. & Knapp D. E. ( 1989). "Antihypertensive drug use: Trends in the United States from 1973 to 1985". Hypertension (Suppl. I).

Haywood L. J. ( 1990). "Hypertension in minority populations: Access to care". American Journal of Medicine, 88, 17S-20S.

Hildreth C. & Saunders E. ( 1991). "Hypertension in blacks: Clinical overview". In Elijah Saunders, ed., C ardiovascular Disease in Blacks. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.

James K. & Healy B. ( 1989). "Heart disease arising during or secondary to pregnancy". In P. Douglas, ed., Heart Disease in Women. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.

Joint National Committee. ( 1985). Subcommittee on Definition and Prevalence of the 1984 JNC. Hypertension prevalence and the status of awareness, treatment and control in the U.S. Hypertension, 7, 641.

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