and governors are even more reluctant to suggest discipline upon subordinate officers, who persistently refuse to make them effective. In other words, we have the disadvantages as well as the advantages of democracy. 176
One can sense the frustration of the child labor activists as they worked for reform in this kind of climate. In 1908, Lovejoy complained: "By mul- titudes of people affected, whether employers, parents or children, these laws are resented and looked upon as detrimental, while a small army of officials is required to secure their enforcement against the connivance of these three interested factors." 177 In the next chapter, we will show how the middle-class reformers' desire for the strict enforcement of child labor laws eventually overcame this popular enthusiasm for the economic benefits of child labor.