The American Welfare System: Origins, Structure, and Effects

By Howard Gensler | Go to book overview

identifiable effect on migration. It holds a very small attraction for welfare mothers and has an even smaller repellant effect for all others.


NOTES
634.
See, e.g., Sheldon Danziger, Robert Haveman, and Robert Plotnick, "How Income Transfer Programs Affect Work, Savings, and the Income Distribution: A Critical Review," Journal of Economic Literature, 19 ( 1981) 975-1028; Mark Killingsworth , Labor Supply ( New York, Cambridge Univ. Press: 1983); Robert Moffitt , "Incentive Effects of the U.S. Welfare System," Journal of Economic Literature 30 ( 1992), 1-61, and sources cited therein.
635.
Danziger, Haveman, and Plotnick, op. cit.
636.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States ( Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1994), p. 370.
637.
For the NIT: see, e.g., Philip Robins, "A Comparison of the Labor Supply Findings from the Four Negative Income Tax Experiments," Journal of Human Resources 20 ( 1985), 567-582; Orley Ashenfelter, "Determining Participation in Income-Tested Social Programs," American Economic Review 78 ( 1983), 517- 525; Gary Burtless and Jerry Hausman, "The Effect of Taxation on Labor Supply: Evaluating the Gary Negative Income Tax Experiment," Journal of Political Economy 86 ( 1978), 1103-1130; Michael Keely, Philip Robins, Robert Spiegelman , and Richard West, "The Labor Supply Effects and Costs of Alternative Negative Income Tax Programs," Journal of Human Resources 13 ( 1978), 3-36. For AFDC: see, e.g., Nicholas Barr and Robert Hall, "The Probability of Dependence on Public Assistance", Economica 48 ( 1981), 109-124; Elizabeth Durbin, "Work and Welfare: The Case of Aid to Families with Dependent Children," Journal of Human Resources 8 Supp. ( 1973), 103-125; Irwin Garfinkle and Larry Orr , "Welfare Policy and Employment Rate of AFDC Mothers," National Tax Journal 27 ( 1974), 275-284; J. Hosek, "Determinants of Family Participation in the AFDC-Unemployed Fathers Program," Review of Economics and Statistics 63 ( 1980), 466-470; Robert Hutchens, "Entry and Exit Transitions in a Government Transfer Program: The Case of Aid to Families with Dependent Children," Journal of Human Resources 13 ( 1981), 60-74; and Robert Moffitt, "Participation in the AFDC Program and the Stigma of Welfare Receipt: Estimation of a Choice-Theoretic Model," Southern Economic Journal 47 ( 1981), 753-762.
638.
Philip Robins, "A Comparison of the Labor Supply Findings from the Four Negative Income Tax Experiments," Journal of Human Resources 20 ( 1985), 567- 582.
639.
See, e.g., Robert Killingsworth, Labor Supply ( New York: Cambridge University Press: 1983) pp. 379-382; Gary Burtless and David Greenburg, "Inferences Concerning Labor Supply Behavior Based on Limited Duration Experiments," American Economic Review 72 ( 1982), 488-497; David Greenburg, Robert Moffitt , and John Friedmann, "Underreporting and Experimental Effects on Work Effort: Evidence from the Gary Income Maintenance Experiment," Review of Economics and Statistics 63 ( 1981), 581-589; Jerry Hausman and David Wise, "The Evaluation of Results from Truncated Samples: The New Jersey NegativeIncome Tax Experiment,"

-226-

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The American Welfare System: Origins, Structure, and Effects
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • I - The Origins of the American Welfare System 1
  • 1 - The Child and the American Welfare State 3
  • Notes 18
  • 2 - The New View of the Child 23
  • Notes 48
  • 3 - Progressive Priorities 55
  • Notes 69
  • 4 - Child Labor and the Mothers' Pension Movement 73
  • Notes 91
  • 5 - The Democratization of Outdoor Relief 97
  • Notes 120
  • 6 - Child Labor and Southern Patriotism 125
  • Notes 150
  • 7 - Farm Labor and "City-Centered" Child Welfare 155
  • Notes 168
  • 8 - The Case of Mothers' Pensions in Memphis 171
  • Notes 185
  • 9 - The Child and the State 189
  • Notes 194
  • II - The Structure and Effects of Welfare 197
  • 10 - The Structure of the American Welfare System 199
  • Notes 215
  • 11 - Behavioral Effects from Welfare 219
  • Notes 226
  • 12 - Reform 231
  • Notes 235
  • 13 - Welfare Policy: Point and Counterpoint 237
  • Notes 266
  • Bibliography 273
  • Index 289
  • About the Editor and Contributors 295
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