Government Structures in the U.S.A. and the Sovereign States of the Former U.S.S.R: Power Allocation among Central, Regional, and Local Governments

By James E. Hickey Jr.; Alexej Ugrinsky | Go to book overview

pected that the Philadelphia model will prove as successful for the peoples of the East as it has been for the Americans?


NOTES
1.
Text in translation: New York Times, December 10, 1991 A-19.
2.
Text in Izvestia, September 7, 1991.
3.
Text of Alma Ata accord, New York Times, December 23, 1991, A-10.
4.
A. Y. Vyshinsky, The Law of the Society State ( New York, 1948), 314.
5.
Ibid., 167, on the role of the Soviets. Karl Loewenstein popularized the system in Western literature as "the Assembly system of government."
6.
See John N. Hazard, Settling Disputes in Soviet Society ( New York, 1960), 6-9.
7.
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR) Constitution of 1918, executed July 10, 1919. For English translation see Aryeh L. Unger, Constitutional Development in the U.S.S.R.: A Guide to the Soviet Constitution ( New York, 1982). 25-41. The RSFSR Central Executive Committee (CEC) transferred to the Council of People's Commissars (CPC) authority to act without prior reference to the CEC in the event that counterrevolutionary activity required such action. Resolution of November 20, 1917. The resolution was not printed in the official gazette (See SU, RSFSR, 1917-18). It was cited by James Bunyan and Harold Henry Fisher, The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1918 ( Stanford University Press, 1934), 189.
8.
For the texts of such decrees, see SU, RSFSR, 1917-18. For examples of CPC decrees, see decrees on Press Censorship, State Monopoly of Publication of Advertisements and Notices, State Monopoly of Distribution of Agricultural Machines, Stop Payment of Dividends, Creation on Commissariats of Moslem and Jewish Affairs, Adoption of the Western Calendar, Nationalization of the Merchant Fleet, Creation of Labor Exchanges.
9.
For the laws creating the constitutions of the non-Russian republics prior to the Treaty of Union, see Istoriia Savetskoi Konstitutsii (v Dokumentakh) 1917-1956 ( Moscow, 1957). The text of the treaty between the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Belorussian SSR, and the Transcausian SSR (including within it Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia) signed on December 20, 1920, and proclaimed by the First Congress of Soviets of the U.S.S.R. is set forth on pp. 394-98.
10.
For text of the U.S.S.R. Constitution of 1923-28, see English translation in Unger, Constitutional Development.
11.
The Federalist (No. 47).
12.
For text in English translation, see Parker School of Foreign and Comparative Law, Columbia University, Legal Materials, Russia and the Republics ( Kazakhstan, 1). A full constitution was adopted by Kazakhstan on January 28, 1993. Vechernaya Alma- Ata, February 2, 1993, 2.
13.
The text in Russian is published in Argumenty I Fakti, March 1992. Since this paper was written, the constitution of the Russian Republic expected to be adopted in 1992 remains in draft. In view of the continuing conflict between the Russian Republic Congress of People's Deputies and President Yeltsin, it seems unlikely that a new Russian Republic constitution will be adopted in the foreseeable future.

-10-

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