their constitutional parameters, and, in appropriate circumstances, postpone actual constitutional decisions until other branches have spoken.
The new Russian Federation Constitution is intended to be a contract among individuals and the federation. 85 However, words mean little without enforcement power. As discussed, there are alternative approaches to enforcement of constitutional rights; however, the greatest responsibility falls upon the Russian Constitutional Court, which yields significant power. By allocating interpretative authority to the courts through broad constitutional language in the areas of individual liberties, without specific constitutionally based standards to apply, the adopters are risking judicial activism and judicial lawmaking that may run contrary to the original intent. This ongoing criticism of the American judiciary arises particularly in the realm of the right to privacy and Fourth Amendment jurisprudence. Whether an interpretivist approach or noninterpretivist approach is adopted by the future Russian Constitutional Court, it is critical to give clear meaning to the individual liberty provisions in these very early stages of developing the rule of law. The role of the republics and local governing authorities will be critical to the future enforcement of individual constitutional protections. Among the many obstacles facing the republics of the former Soviet Union, the current constitutional predicament is whether the three branches of government can establish credibility with the people; or whether the populace's confidence in the federalist system and the new Constitution will dissipate, as it has with the four prior Constitutions of the Russian Federation.