avenue for dissent and raises the consciousness of the people, this benefit must be balanced against the potentially negative effect of the perception of American disharmony in the international arena.
The republic of the United States was born in 1789. In 1992 the concept of federal supremacy over foreign affairs may be in need of modification in order to adapt to the changing world. With advancement in communication, foreign policy today includes many issues such as trade, jobs abroad, environmental activity, cultural and educational programs, and human rights. Thus it seems reasonable to encourage our individual citizens, states, and local governments to participate actively in the implementation of foreign policies that affect their lives. State involvement in foreign affairs should be permissible as long as the state activity does not significantly damage the goal of our federal government to speak for the nation as a whole and with one voice.
It is time to contemplate a new federalism that encourages state and local involvement in certain foreign affairs matters. Federal deregulation, federal budget cutbacks, and pressure from constituents have forced states to assume responsibility for what once were perceived as exclusively "federal" issues. Political action committees are forming everywhere and their influence is pervasive. Special interest groups are growing at an unprecedented rate. Grassroots advocacy has proven to be quite effective in protecting and advancing the interests of states and local entities on such issues as hazardous waste disposal, international trade, clean air and water, banking, and workplace safety--that is, traditional federal issues. 48 Such a new federalism would have the beneficial effect of encouraging the ordinary reasonable citizen to participate in foreign policy by actively engaging in local government.