STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
"Creeping" federalism is a phenomenon experienced by most stable federal government structures over the long term, interspersed with spasms of federal deregulation and decentralization. The instability of government structures in the former U.S.S.R. has led to sovereign independence by former U.S.S.R. republics and claims to autonomy by local geographic governmental units within the Russian Federation. Even the U.S.A. recently has been in a cycle of deregulation (airlines, education, trucking, utilities, etc.) with state and local governments bearing a greater portion of the governmental budget burdens than they have in the past.
Richard Briffault's paper succinctly makes the case that the last three decades document the federalization of state and local political processes in the U.S.A. This trend has evolved in direct reflection of the national commitment to federal protection of individual and minority group participation in the political process. The paper concentrates on the two most important aspects of participation: one man-one vote and minority group representation in government.
The paper by Philip Grossman and Priya Rajagopalan addresses the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. and the fiscal issues that may yet dictate a meaningful role for a centralized CIS or other governmental unit. The paper examines specifically the cost and benefits of having local or former republic independent states now bear the burden of taxing and spending powers. The paper asserts that administrative inefficiencies and economic waste of 15 separate fiscal entities of the 15 former republics may yet create some fiscally efficient role for the CIS in the decades ahead.
Lyudmila M. Simonova's paper suggests that local and regional governments within the Russian Federation must stimulate free enterprise and economic growth, especially in the energy sector, while at the same time both safe-guarding favorable conditions for the daily lives of the population and finding workable answers to the existing and anticipated environmental crises. The paper focuses on the large energy enterprises of the Tyumen region to suggest that effective development of organized free enterprise requires a measure of central government coordination and influence.
Alexei I. Ivandaev's paper examines the market problems facing the local