Federalism and Problems of Environmental Protection in Sovereign Ukraine
Svetlana N. Kravchenko
A starting point for discussion of environmental protection in Ukraine is federalism. The term "federalism" is used sufficiently often in science and implies not only the theory of federative states but different forms of functions between states and regional unions deprived of the state nature. Federalism is the principle of connection between the whole and the parts in the territorial and political organization of the state and the idea of compromise among all state and local interests.
The federal system of the U.S.A., established by the Constitution of 1787, is appraised by American and European researchers as a perfect theoretical model of a federative state. But literal transference of this model to Europe, including Ukraine, is possible only by taking into account historical, economic, social, and cultural features of development of European countries and Ukraine.
One of the American state system's godfathers, Thomas Jefferson, wrote: "My general idea comes to the foundation here of a single nation in the sphere of international politics and of separate nations in the sphere of all purely home affairs." He supposed that national problems can be adequately solved in terms of stimulation of development of self-governmental principles.
The evolution of the American federal system led to the increase of the role of harmonious cooperation between federal and local bodies (the concept of "creative federalism" by President Lyndon Johnson, President Richard Nixon's "new federalism," and President Jimmy Carter's "new partnership").
As you know, the Soviet Union as a federative state ceased to exist as a result of deep internal socioeconomic and political changes and the development of national consciousness in the former republics that were, in truth, conventional administrative localities of the former U.S.S.R.
On August 24, 1991, Ukraine proclaimed the Act of Independence and